In the acrostical alphagram, the solution word is clued exactly as in a charade. Then there are sets of rhyming couplets, with the lines of each couplet numbered 1 and 2. Each line clues a word; the words clued by a given couplet are identical except for their first letters. These letters form the solution word; the first letters of each word that was a solution to line 1 of a couplet form the first half of the solution word; the first letters of the lines labelled 2 form the second half.
In an acrostical alphagram, the couplets' first letters change to form the solution words and in an acrostical omegram, the last letters are used for the acrostic. Thus an "omegram" replaces the "alpha" with "omeg[a]."
This comes from solving the example in the puzzle database (from 1 June 1910):
The solution: ALL = morntide, ONE = morn; TWO =
The word "ray" here is used in the sense found in Websters' Unabridged (NI1, 1913): "to mark, stain or soil; to streak; to defile (obs)." Alternately, the word "dip" is used in the sense of a noun referring to dipped candles, also found in Websters' Unabridged.
In all the available examples for both alpha- and omegrams, the couplets resolve to 3-letter words only. In the acrostical omegram published in April 2005 (#45), this rule was not the case.
This is an old puzzle type, the form of which was deduced (by Philana) by solving the sample flat. As such, the definition may be slightly in error.
In the acrostical omegram, the solution word is clued exactly as in a charade. Then there are sets of rhyming couplets, with the lines of each couplet numbered 1 and 2. Each line clues a word; the words clued by a given couplet are identical except for their last letters. These letters form the solution word; the last letters of each word that was a solution to line 1 of a couplet form the first half of the solution word; the last letters of the lines labelled 2 form the second half.
The solution: ALL = plumaged, ONE = plum; TWO =
Alternate letters are taken from a word or phrase. Each set of letters is then transposed into another word. For example: ONE = place, TWO = story, ALL = Polycrates.
The solution: ONE = bank, TWO = slim, ALL = lambskin.
The alterposal was invented by Xemu.
An enigmatic rebus with a reading that solvers may or may not agree with, as in the ambigram.
The solution: fool's mate
The ambigmatic rebus was invented by Trazom.
A generalization of the Rochester Transaddition. You begin with an n-letter BASE word and an m-letter BANK word (note: n and m do not need to be equal, as they are here). The other solwords, numbered ONE though M, are formed by transposing all the letters in BASE plus each of the m letters from BANK in turn (so it's nice if BANK has no repeated letters). An example: BASE = cast iron, BANK = atone, ONE = raincoats, TWO = tractions, THREE = consortia, FOUR = transonic, FIVE = creations.
The solution: BASE = east, BANK = Xemu, ONE = Texas, TWO = tease, THREE = teams, FOUR = saute.
The Bridgewater transaddition was invented by Xemu and named by Meki.
In a consonantcy deletion, consonants are deleted one by one from a starting word, and the basewords are consonantcies of the result. An example would be ONE = consonant, TWO = consent.
The solution: NLRB = Guantanamo, NLB = ignition, NB = Gatineau, BRLN = amounting, BLN = untongue, BN = Antigua.
The consonantcy deletion was invented by Newrow.
A consonantcy word deletion function much like a word deletion, except that only consonants are considered. That is, the inner word to be deleted is a consonantcy for some central section of the main base word; the remaining consonants are used in the outer word. For example, TOTAL = Massachusetts, INNER = schist, OUTER = mists.
The solution: WHOLE = situation comedy, INNER = tonic, OUTER = esteemed.
The consonantcy word deletion was invented by Newrow.
A word or phrase is broken down into a series of shorter words and phrases by taking letters in order from the the original phrase - one from the front, then one from the back, then one from the front, and so on. For example, WHOLE = sapwort, ONE = star, TWO = pow. Enumerations for the shorter words, as with charades, are not given.
The solution: WHOLE = zuppa inglese, OUTER = Zeus, MIDDLE = pepla, INNER = gin.
The convergence was invented by Lunch Boy.
An old name for a beheadment.
Most of the flat types in this section and in the Guide proper allow phrases in their bases only if they have dictionary nature: even if the phrase doesn't already appear as an entry in any of Merriam-Webster's dictionaries, it does mean more than the mere sum of its words. "Skeleton in the closet" is not MW (though it is findable in 11C under "skeleton"), but it means more than a collection of bones stored just off of one's bedroom.
Freewheeling refers to a flat with a base that not only has a phrase that is not in the dictionary, but that does not, should not, and will not appear in any theoretical dictionary ever. A freewheeling letter shift would be ONE = blustering, TWO = blue string.
Freewheeling bases were once exclusively used in Ralves (but not marked "freewheeling" to hide their Ralfish nature), but it was then argued that freewheeling bases often weren't Ralfish enough, and they began appearing (very) occasionally in the Enigma.
Freewheeling bases should not vary too much from MW words and phrases, since the idea can be taken too far. It is unlikely that a freewheeling well-mixed transposal would ever be printed, for example.
The solution: OPERA TUNE = Die Fledermaus, OPPORTUNE = deflate a mouse.
The concept of freewheeling flats is about as old as Ralves themselves. The term "freewheeling" was coined by Crax.
A word or phrase has every possible pair of letters deleted, and each time the resulting set of letters is transposed to form another word. The cuewords in the following example indicate which pair of letters has to be deleted; the original word must also appear in the flat. This flat type generates a very large number of solution words: a base word of length 5 would require eleven; the example given has a seven-letter base word, which results in twenty two words to be clued.
The solution: ALL = tirades, ONE/TWO = dares, ONE/THREE = ideas, ONE/FOUR = rides, ONE/FIVE = raise, ONE/SIX = raids, ONE/SEVEN = aired, TWO/THREE = stead, TWO/FOUR = drest, TWO/FIVE = rates, TWO/SIX = darts, TWO/SEVEN = tread, THREE/FOUR = deist, THREE/FIVE = iteas, THREE/SIX = staid, THREE/SEVEN = Edita, FOUR/FIVE = rites, FOUR/SIX = strid, FOUR/SEVEN = tried, FIVE/SIX = stair, FIVE/SEVEN = irate, SIX/SEVEN = triad.
The Hutto Transdeletion was invented by Meki.
A phonetic flat in which the International Phonetic Alphabet accounts for the sounds in a way that MW dictionaries do not.
The solution: FARMER = teacher, DELL = tee shirt.
The IPA modifier was invented by Hot.
All words in an isomorph base have the same pattern, so that if they were encrypted it would be impossible to tell them apart. For example: ONE = fulfil, TWO = Ionian.
The solution: EARLY = usually, LATE = fifteen.
The isomorph was invented by Treesong.
In Italy, flats do not use cuewords at all. Instead they are divided into stanzas, and each stanza refers to one part of the base in a manner similar to our enigmas, referring obliquely to its subject while appearing to talk about something else.
Italian-style flats also have a secondary title that refers to the overall subject that makes the puzzle appear to hang together (but which, of course, is the layer of subterfuge that the solver must try to see through).
The following example was written for the article that introduced these flats and picture flats to the modern NPL in the August 1999 issue of The Enigma.
The solution: Amtrak, karma.
Italian-style puzzles were introduced by Hot.
Take a word and change one letter at a time to get a series of new words, ending with a word related to the first word. All words except the first and last word must appear in the flat; the first and last word do not appear and must be deduced. For example, if the base were cat, cot, cog, dog, then the flat would contain ONE and TWO, which would be cot and cog respectively. The first and last words must be submitted with the solution to get full credit, however.
The solution: ONE = heal, TWO = hell, THREE = tell, FOUR = toll, FIVE = toil; the first and last words are head and tail.
A set of words such that any two of them form a changeover base, with every possible letter position included. For example: ONE = that, TWO = heat, THREE = hart, FOUR = hats.
The solution: FIRST = Theron, SECOND = hieron, THIRD = Hebron, FOURTH = hereon, FIFTH = heroin, SIXTH = herons.
The Lakeway changeover was invented by Meki.
A letter bank where the minimal set of letters is not included in the base. This is most likely to be done because the minimal set will not transpose into a word. For example, ONE = princelet, TWO = Peter Principle.
The solution: IN ONE... = green around the gills, THEATER... = Thousand Island dressing.
The letter bankless was invented by ΧΕΙΡΩΝ.
A lock and drop is like a padlock, except that in addition, the overlapping letters form a word. For example, ONE = lethal, TWO = halter, OUT = letter, IN = Hal.
The solution: LEFT = tread, RIGHT = readier, LOCK = tier, DROP = read.
The lock & drop was invented by Wabbit.
Like a repeated-letter deletion, except that all occurrences of any repeated letters are deleted. For example: BIG = statism, SMALL = aim.
The solution: LONG = catacomb, SHORT = tomb.
A pair of rebi, the rubric for each of which is the solution to the other rebus. Since this means there is no apparent rubric for either rebus when one starts solving, the type is extremely difficult, and the only example ever printed was KU'd (not required for solving credit).
The solution: KLICK = do chere ma ripen; MILE = pence red earth E damage
The solution to MILE is the rubric for KLICK, and the reading for that rubric is is "d [abbreviation for pence]; ocher [red earth]; E; mar I pen [mar = damage]". The solution to KLICK is the rubric for MILE, and the reading for that rubric is "pen C [the note C = do] ere dear [chere]; the dam [ma]; age [ripen]".
The mutual rebus was invented by Ucaoimhu.
Two letters replace each other each time they appear in a word. For example: ONE = sell, TWO = less.
The solution: EBB = travail, BEE = trivial.
A substring of one of the basewords is a proper name (such as Peter in Lampeter) and is replaced by another proper name to form another word. The proper names are not individually clued. For example: Avalon, Avedon; substituting Ed for Al.
The solution: STAR-5 = Camel, REVAMP = cachet.
The name change was invented by Quip.
In the Permuted Consonantcy,
all permutations of the consonant letters appear once, numbered in
alphabetical order of the consonant sequences. For example, in a
three-consonant flat, with all consonants different (which the
following example is), the six squares might, in order, contain the
following consonant sequences:
A concrete example is ONE = reroute, TWO = oratorio, THREE = tarry.
The solution: ONE = eclair, TWO = Cairo IL, THREE = ulcer, FOUR = lyric, FIVE = oracle, SIX = relic.
The permuted consonantcy was invented by Newrow.
Normal consonantcies are not necessarily phonetic; the consonants won't change, but their sounds might. In a phonetic consonantcy, the consonant sounds are retained from baseword to baseword, but the letters that represent those sounds may vary.
This example illustrates that difference.
The solution: NAME = haute, ENEMY = hate, NOM = Hot; EAST = broccoli, SIGHT = bear claw, CITY = Berkeley.
The phonetic consonantcy was invented by Hot.
The classic pig latin rule is that the initial consonants of the word are moved to the end, and then followed by a long A sound. Pig Latin puzzles are always phonetic.
An examples: ONE = bat, UNWEIGH = at bay.
The solution: SOL = wheezier, ALL SAY = easier way
The Pig Latin puzzle was invented by Forge, first appearing in Apr 2003.
This puzzle type was published as a Ralf, and is unlikely ever to be published as a regular flat. The basewords are such that if you look up the first word's pronunciation, ignoring diacritical marks, you get the second word. For example: ONE = challis, TWO = shale.
The solution: LEASED = pH, LEST = peach.
The pronunciation was invented by Btnirn.
A modifier of other flats, like "phonetic". Qaqaq doesn't write U's after Q's; a Qaqaqian [sic] letter change on pick, clued as `rapid', would make qick. The tagging, or lack of it, assumes those U's to be there - that is, it treats qick as quick. I.e. as (4) and 10C because quick is. The name was changed to Qaqaqesqe soon thereafter by Qaqaq himself.
The solution: A = Xebec, B = Quebec, C = rotation, D = quotation, E = Tito, F = Quito, G = elation, H = equation, K = entire, L = enquire, M = Bouvet, N = bouquet.
Two cuewords are given, one for the reber and one for the subus. The solutions to each are palindromes. The first half of the reber solution and the second half of the subus solution provide a reading that generates a rubric, just as in a regular rebus. The second half of the reber, read backwards, followed by the first half of the subus, also read backwards, provides the same reading. For example: REBER = >Ono, SUBUS = tenet; with a rubric of T and a reading of one T.
The solution: REBER = Hanoi's secession. Ah; SUBUS = rod. No condor; reading = H; an O is second; or.
The base of a reduplication is such that the letters in the first half are repeated in the second half. For example: "edited it". Further replications are possible: a triplication has also been published.
The solution: Saint Theresa in the lens. Ain't there Saint Helen.
Like a repeated bigram (or trigram, etc.) deletion, in which the deleted string of letters forms a word and is clued in addition to the other parts.
For example: ALL = witherite, ONE = it, TWO = where.
The solution: ENTIRE = had it made, INS = ad, OUT = hit me.
Each letter in a baseword is added back to the word, in order, and the result transposed. For example: BASE = nacre, ONE = canner, TWO = arcane, THREE = cancer, FOUR = craner, FIVE = careen.
The solution: BASE = scare, ONE = caress, TWO = scarce, THREE = Caesar, FOUR = racers, FIVE = crease.
The Rochester transaddition was invented by Hap.
In a split shift, two (or more) of the base words start and end with identical sequences of letters. Linking the dissimilar parts makes another word. For example: ONE = elegant, TWO = element, SPLIT = game.
The solution: SWAT = money, monastery, Easter.
The split shift was invented by Maelstrom and Slik.
Instead of being palindromic when considered letter by letter, a syllabic palindrome works when taken syllable by syllable. For example: palindrome in pal.
The solution: tic-tac-toe tactic.
A synonym of the main base word has letters which are a subset of the letters in the main word. Remove those letters, and what remains, in that order, spells the second word. The synonym might be a synonym for a sense of the main word other than the one used in the flat.
For example: ONE = separate, TWO = see, with the removed synonym apart.
The solution: FIRST WORD = against, synonym = anti, SECOND = gas.
The synonym deletion was invented by Endgame.
415 lb of Snake noticed that The National Puzzlers' League: The First 115 Years reports that there were 33 'Telestichs' published between 1910-1953 (p. 308) and apparently no others were published up until the printing of this book in 1998. 415 lb of Snake also suggests that, according to the book, AEs as we know them now, only began in 1952, so it leaves the possibility that all 33 were published in 1952-53. Unfortunately, he could find nothing regarding who invented the 'Telestich' type or when it first appeared.
The example given by The National Puzzlers' League: The First 115 Years is balD, tunA, burY for day and balM, tunE, burN for men. It's not clear why two examples using the same letter groups are given; perhaps it was the way it was done back then as only one example is used for the AE.
An old name for a terminal deletion. Note, however, that the cueword order in a terminal addition is the reverse of that in a terminal deletion. For example, in a terminal addition on tea and steam, tea would be ONE and steam would be TWO, whereas for a terminal deletion it would be the other way around.
An old name for a terminal deletion.
The first and last letters of a word are both changed. For example: ONE = Spider-Man, epidermal.
The solution: ONE = curbing, TWO = turbine.
In a terminal rotation a pair of words becomes another pair of words when all four terminal letters shift position, in a manner analagous to rotating tires on a car--each front letter moves to the end, while the back letters move in front and switch words.
For example: ONE = tend, TWO = bums, THREE = sent, FOUR = dumb.
The solution: ONE = dapper, TWO = sought, THREE = tapped, FOUR = roughs.
The terminal rotation was invented by Bartok.
An interlock in which one of the shorter pieces is tranposed.
The solution: THREE WORDS = an immediate action; TWO = a meditation; HERDERS = cinema.
The transinterlock was invented by Aesop.
An old name for a metathesis.
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